Tolstoy seems to be very anti-Russian in Hadji Murat. He paints the Nikolai I as an idiot who does not take religion seriously (67), which probably would have been a big deal for an early Christian Anarchist. On the other hand Tolstoy makes a point to show Hadji Murat as a devout muslim (98 and 52), unlike Shamil who views his prayers as an obligation alone (86). A lack of religious devotion is not the only way in which Tolstoy disparages the tsar, he makes a point to show that the tsar takes pleasure in terrifying people (66) and cheats on his wife, regardless of the morality of it (67).
Should we view this as an indictment of the Russian system? Did Tolstoy view Russia as a nation led by bad Christians devoid of any morals?